Conventional Fuels

The biggest problem in effective utilization of Indian coals has all along been its high mineral content. Coal liquefaction and gasification being capital intensive, the returns so far have come from washing the coal, where a trade off is made between the floats, meddling and rejects. In this context, new initiatives have been taken at the IIT Delhi resulting in solubilization of the major part of the coal substance by extraction at the atmospheric pressure with combinations of polar organic solvents which are recycled. The extract is zero ash and can be treated as organic feedstock for further processing. This process has been termed as organo-refining of coals. The extract is almost zero ash and can be treated as organic feed stock for further processing. This reason has led to the development of clean coal Technology which may be useful for the coal based power generation and for steel power plants.Bioleaching and biosolubilization have been found suitable to dimineralise the coal.

Other activities of this group include

• Conversion of coal to liquid,
• Utilization of coal extracts for value added end-uses such as a chemical feedstock,
• Conversion of the products of coal gasification to synthetic natural gas methane and to provide alternative energy transport systems.
• Coke making
• Coal Delsulphurization coal cleaning
• Oil from waste and
• Hydrocarbon extraction from energy plantation and other alternative routes
• Control of pollution from fuel firing – CPCB has set norms basing on this at 150mg/Nm3.
• Perfected the technology of Incineration.

Alternative Fuels for I.C Engines

- RnD activities related to utilization of alternativefuels are being pursued in this lab. Fuels that are being investigated include Hydrogen, CNG, Biodiesel, Hydrogen added Natural Gas, Ethanol and Methanol.
- The lab is equipped with test rigs and instruments to evaluate the performance, emissions and combustion characteristics of the system fuelled with these alternative fuels or their blends with conventional petrol and diesel.
- Three injection system configurations have been developed for engine operation with gaseous fuels such as hydrogen, CNG and the blend of the two fuels.
- A hydrogen-operated genset has been developed in the lab as part of a sponsored project funded by Ministry of Non-conventional Energy Sources (MNES) (Figure 6).
- An Indica car has been operating on road, fuelled with 20% bio-diesel mixed with 80% petro-diesel under a MNES sponsored project (Figure 7).
- A pilot plant (100 litres/batch) has been established close to the Engines & Unconventional Fuels Lab to produce biodiesel from several feedstocks such as Karanja, Jatropha, Mahua and Polanga. These activities are being sponsored by General Motors Research Lab (USA). A Tavera vehicle has been given by General Motors to demonstrate on-the-road performance operating with 20% bio-diesel mixed with 80% petro-diesel.
- A new research experimental test rig has been set up under the FIST/DST scheme for undertaking fundamental investigations on the engine performance, combustion and emission characteristics was inaugurated by the former Chairman/Board of Governors. This consists of AVL Research engine, which could be used for undertaking combustion studies.
- Test rigs have been developed to carryout M. Tech experiments for regular and part time M. Tech students. Full time research scholars as well as research scholars sponsored by academic institutes/organizations and industries carryout their tests in the area of low emission alternative fuels.
- The lab is equipped with single cylinder, multi cylinder, research engine and typical utility engines adopted for use in transportation sector as well for decentralized energy application.
- Modelling and simulation related activities are being carried out in the area of engine combustion and emission studies.
- Investigations are also being carried on catalytic converters to find their suitability for using them on alternative fuelled engines.